The evolution and storage of primitive melts in the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland: the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. the Saksunarvatn ash)

Show simple item record

dc.identifier.uri Neave, David A. Maclennan, John Thordarson, Thorvaldur Hartley, Margaret E. 2016-12-16T09:39:07Z 2016-12-16T09:39:07Z 2015
dc.identifier.citation Neave, D.A.; Maclennan, J.; Thordarson, T.; Hartley, M.E.: The evolution and storage of primitive melts in the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland: the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. the Saksunarvatn ash). In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 170 (2015), Nr. 2, 21. DOI:
dc.description.abstract Major, trace and volatile elements were measured in a suite of primitive macrocrysts and melt inclusions from the thickest layer of the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. Saksunarvatn ash) at Lake Hvítárvatn in central Iceland. In the absence of primitive tholeiitic eruptions (MgO > 7 wt%) within the Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) of Iceland, these crystal and inclusion compositions provide an important insight into magmatic processes in this volcanically productive region. Matrix glass compositions show strong similarities with glass compositions from the AD 1783–1784 Laki eruption, confirming the affinity of the tephra series with the Grímsvötn volcanic system. Macrocrysts can be divided into a primitive assemblage of zoned macrocryst cores (An78–An92, Mg#cpx = 82–87, Fo79.5–Fo87) and an evolved assemblage consisting of unzoned macrocrysts and the rims of zoned macrocrysts (An60–An68, Mg#cpx = 71–78, Fo70–Fo76). Although the evolved assemblage is close to being in equilibrium with the matrix glass, trace element disequilibrium between primitive and evolved assemblages indicates that they were derived from different distributions of mantle melt compositions. Juxtaposition of disequilibrium assemblages probably occurred during disaggregation of incompatible trace element-depleted mushes (mean La/Ybmelt = 2.1) into aphyric and incompatible trace element-enriched liquids (La/Ybmelt = 3.6) shortly before the growth of the evolved macrocryst assemblage. Post-entrapment modification of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions has been minimal and high-Mg# inclusions record differentiation and mixing of compositionally variable mantle melts that are amongst the most primitive liquids known from the EVZ. Coupled high-field strength element (HFSE) depletion and incompatible trace element enrichment in a subset of primitive plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions can be accounted for by inclusion formation following plagioclase dissolution driven by interaction with plagioclase-undersaturated melts. Thermobarometric calculations indicate that final crystal–melt equilibration within the evolved assemblage occurred at ~1140 °C and 0.0–1.5 kbar. Considering the large volume of the erupted tephra and textural evidence for rapid crystallisation of the evolved assemblage, 0.0–1.5 kbar is considered unlikely to represent a pressure of long-term magma accumulation and storage. Multiple thermometers indicate that the primitive assemblage crystallised at high temperatures of 1240–1300 °C. Different barometers, however, return markedly different crystallisation depth estimates. Raw clinopyroxene–melt pressures of 5.5–7.5 kbar conflict with apparent melt inclusion entrapment pressures of 1.4 kbar. After applying a correction derived from published experimental data, clinopyroxene–melt equilibria return mid-crustal pressures of 4 ± 1.5 kbar, which are consistent with pressures estimated from the major element content of primitive melt inclusions. Long-term storage of primitive magmas in the mid-crust implies that low CO2 concentrations measured in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (262–800 ppm) result from post-entrapment CO2 loss during transport through the shallow crust. In order to reconstruct basaltic plumbing system geometries from petrological data with greater confidence, mineral–melt equilibrium models require refinement at pressures of magma storage in Iceland. Further basalt phase equilibria experiments are thus needed within the crucial 1–7 kbar range. eng
dc.description.sponsorship Natural Environment Research Council/NE/1528277/1
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Berlin : Springer Verlag
dc.relation.ispartofseries Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 170 (2015), Nr. 2
dc.rights CC BY 4.0
dc.subject Basalt eng
dc.subject Iceland eng
dc.subject Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions eng
dc.subject Saksunarvatn eng
dc.subject Thermobarometry eng
dc.subject barometry eng
dc.subject enrichment eng
dc.subject host rock eng
dc.subject igneous geochemistry eng
dc.subject melt inclusion eng
dc.subject phase equilibrium eng
dc.subject plagioclase eng
dc.subject pressure effect eng
dc.subject tephra eng
dc.subject trace element eng
dc.subject volcanic eruption eng
dc.subject Grimsvotn eng
dc.subject Hvitarvatn eng
dc.subject.ddc 550 | Geowissenschaften ger
dc.title The evolution and storage of primitive melts in the Eastern Volcanic Zone of Iceland: the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e. the Saksunarvatn ash)
dc.type article
dc.type Text
dc.relation.issn 00107999
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 2
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 170
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage 21
dc.description.version publishedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s):

Show simple item record


Search the repository


My Account

Usage Statistics