The 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems

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dc.identifier.uri Miccoli, Ilio Edler, Frederik Pfnür, Herbert Tegenkamp, Christoph 2016-08-12T07:48:11Z 2016-08-12T07:48:11Z 2015-06-10
dc.identifier.citation Miccoli, Ilio; Edler, Frederik; Pfnuer, Herbert; Tegenkamp, Christoph: The 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems. In: Journal of Physics - Condensed Matter 27 (2015), Nr. 22, 223201. DOI:
dc.description.abstract The electrical conductivity of solid-state matter is a fundamental physical property and can be precisely derived from the resistance measured via the four-point probe technique excluding contributions from parasitic contact resistances. Over time, this method has become an interdisciplinary characterization tool in materials science, semiconductor industries, geology, physics, etc, and is employed for both fundamental and application-driven research. However, the correct derivation of the conductivity is a demanding task which faces several difficulties, e.g. the homogeneity of the sample or the isotropy of the phases. In addition, these sample-specific characteristics are intimately related to technical constraints such as the probe geometry and size of the sample. In particular, the latter is of importance for nanostructures which can now be probed technically on very small length scales. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique, introduced by Frank Wenner, in this review we revisit and discuss various correction factors which are mandatory for an accurate derivation of the resistivity from the measured resistance. Among others, sample thickness, dimensionality, anisotropy, and the relative size and geometry of the sample with respect to the contact assembly are considered. We are also able to derive the correction factors for 2D anisotropic systems on circular finite areas with variable probe spacings. All these aspects are illustrated by state-of-the-art experiments carried out using a four-tip STM/SEM system. We are aware that this review article can only cover some of the most important topics. Regarding further aspects, e.g. technical realizations, the influence of inhomogeneities or different transport regimes, etc, we refer to other review articles in this field. eng
dc.description.sponsorship DFG/FOR1700
dc.description.sponsorship DFG/Te 386/9-1
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Bristol : IOP Publishing Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Journal of Physics - Condensed Matter 27 (2015), Nr. 22
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 Unported
dc.subject bulk and surface resistivity eng
dc.subject four-point probe techniques eng
dc.subject correction factor eng
dc.subject nanostructures eng
dc.subject semiconductor sheet resistivity eng
dc.subject finite contacts eng
dc.subject square sample eng
dc.subject hall plate eng
dc.subject conductivity measurements eng
dc.subject electrical-resistivity eng
dc.subject 4-probe resistances eng
dc.subject van eng
dc.subject electrodes eng
dc.subject extension eng
dc.subject.ddc 530 | Physik ger
dc.title The 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems eng
dc.type article
dc.type Text
dc.relation.essn 1361-648X
dc.relation.issn 0953-8984
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 22
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 27
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage 223201
dc.description.version publishedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich

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