Intake of Minerals from Food Supplements in a German Population - A Nationwide Survey

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dc.identifier.uri Willers, Janina Heinemann, Michaela Bitterlich, Norman Hahn, Andreas 2017-05-22T11:59:03Z 2017-05-22T11:59:03Z 2015
dc.identifier.citation Willers, J.; Heinemann, M.; Bitterlich, N.; Hahn, A.: Intake of Minerals from Food Supplements in a German Population - A Nationwide Survey. In: Food and Nutrition Sciences 6 (2015), S. 205-215. DOI:
dc.description.abstract Introduction: Studies indicate that 17.9% - 60% of adults in Germany and Europe regularly use food supplements. Some reports suggest that their use might be responsible for excessive nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine the quantitative mineral intakes from food supplements: whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) with supplements alone, or in combination with food was exceeded was checked. Methods: The survey was carried out by the Association for Consumer Research, Nürnberg, Germany. Anonymous data of 1070 supplement users (40.8% men, 59.2% women) aged 18 - 93 years were available. Three groups were examined based on dietary and supplemental mineral intakes: average, middle-high and high intake. Results: The mean number of supplements reported was 1.6 ± 1.1 products in men and 1.5 ± 0.9 products in women. The minerals most frequently consumed were magnesium, followed by calcium, zinc and selenium. The percentage of the supplement users with total intakes greater than the UL was minimal for all minerals. Supplement use in 143 cases increased the likelihood of intakes above the UL only for magnesium. Subjects particularly in the high intake group—as a worst case scenario—had intakes above the UL in the case of calcium (n = 23) and zinc (n = 34). The percentage of subjects taking several products was greater in subjects exceeding the UL than in those below (P < 0.001). Multiple use was seen significantly more often in men than in women (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In this survey, supplement use was generally not associated with excessive intake. Supplement use resulted in intakes above the UL in only a few cases relating to magnesium, calcium and zinc. This applies more often to elderly subjects and particularly to those who already have a high mineral intake from food in the model calculation. eng
dc.description.sponsorship German Federation of Food Law and Food Science (BLL)
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Delaware : Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Food and Nutrition Sciences 6 (2015), Nr. 2
dc.rights CC BY 4.0 Unported
dc.subject Food Supplements eng
dc.subject Minerals eng
dc.subject Survey eng
dc.subject Tolerable Upper Intake Level eng
dc.subject Multiple Uses eng
dc.subject.ddc 610 | Medizin, Gesundheit ger
dc.title Intake of Minerals from Food Supplements in a German Population - A Nationwide Survey
dc.type Article
dc.type Text
dc.relation.essn 2157-9458
dc.relation.issn 2157-944X
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 2
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 6
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage 205
dc.bibliographicCitation.lastPage 215
dc.description.version publishedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich

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