New Forensic Insight into Carl Auer von Welsbach's 1910 Observation of Induced Radioactivity: Theoretical, Experimental and Historical Approaches

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dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.15488/1216
dc.identifier.uri http://www.repo.uni-hannover.de/handle/123456789/1240
dc.contributor.author Steinhauser, Georg
dc.contributor.author Adunka, Roland
dc.contributor.author Hainz, Dieter
dc.contributor.author Löffler, Gerd
dc.contributor.author Musilek, Andreas
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-20T13:19:22Z
dc.date.available 2018-01-09T23:05:13Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Steinhauser, G.; Adunka, R.; Hainz, D.; Löffler, G.; Musilek, A.: New Forensic Insight into Carl Auer von Welsbach's 1910 Observation of Induced Radioactivity: Theoretical, Experimental and Historical Approaches. In: Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 41 (2016), Nr. 4, S. 297-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03080188.2016.1251731
dc.description.abstract In 1910, Carl Auer von Welsbach noted that he had made an observation of a radioactive substance inducing radioactivity to an inactive substance. From today's point of view, this could have been the first observation of neutron activation. Herein, we present new insights into our investigation of this ‘mysterious observation’ as Auer von Welsbach termed it. We believe that one of the activated objects was a platinum–iridium crucible. The dominating activation product of the crucible could have been iridium-194. We have discovered several platinum crucibles from Auer's heritage and investigated them by gamma-spectrometry and, one of them, by SEM/EDX. In the EDX investigations, however, no iridium was found in the most promising crucible. Hence this particular crucible was probably not the activated object. In any case, gamma-ray spectrometry revealed very low but detectable amounts of natural radionuclides. This indicated that these crucibles were used by Auer von Welsbach for his radioactive work and that these crucibles were bought prior to World War I. Hence Auer von Welsbach somehow managed to save these crucibles from the noble metal collections during the war. Auer's 1910 publication carried the suffix ‘Part I’, however, Part II was thought to be lost. In our recent work, however, we rediscovered a hand-written manuscript of Part II, in which the peculiar observation is mentioned vaguely. Lastly, we converted Auer's uranium standard into becquerels. Based on this conversion, we estimated that Auer von Welsbach observed an 194Ir activity of the crucible of 500 kBq. It is further estimated that a (thermal) neutron flux density of approximately 8E+4 cm−2 s−1 was needed to activate the crucible in a way to meet Auer's description. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Interdisciplinary Science Reviews on 2017-01-09, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03080188.2016.1251731. eng
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Abingdon : Taylor and Francis Ltd.
dc.relation.ispartofseries Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 41 (2016), Nr. 4
dc.rights Es gilt deutsches Urheberrecht. Das Dokument darf zum eigenen Gebrauch kostenfrei genutzt, aber nicht im Internet bereitgestellt oder an Außenstehende weitergegeben werden.
dc.subject Carl Auer von Welsbach eng
dc.subject Discovery of neutron activation eng
dc.subject History of Science eng
dc.subject Nuclear Forensics eng
dc.subject Chemical activation eng
dc.subject Gamma ray spectrometers eng
dc.subject Gamma rays eng
dc.subject Iridium eng
dc.subject Platinum eng
dc.subject Precious metals eng
dc.subject Radiation eng
dc.subject Radioactivity eng
dc.subject Spectrometry eng
dc.subject Carl Auer von Welsbach eng
dc.subject Gamma ray spectrometry eng
dc.subject History of science eng
dc.subject Induced radioactivity eng
dc.subject Neutron activation eng
dc.subject Neutron flux densities eng
dc.subject Nuclear forensics eng
dc.subject Radioactive substances eng
dc.subject Crucibles eng
dc.subject.ddc 500 | Naturwissenschaften ger
dc.subject.ddc 530 | Physik ger
dc.title New Forensic Insight into Carl Auer von Welsbach's 1910 Observation of Induced Radioactivity: Theoretical, Experimental and Historical Approaches
dc.type Text
dc.type article
dc.relation.issn 0308-0188
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.1080/03080188.2016.1251731
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 4
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 41
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage 297
dc.bibliographicCitation.lastPage 318
dc.description.version acceptedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich


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