Russeting of Fruits: Etiology and Management

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dc.identifier.uri Winkler, Andreas Athoo, Thomas Knoche, Moritz 2022-06-15T05:27:04Z 2022-06-15T05:27:04Z 2022
dc.identifier.citation Winkler, A.; Athoo, T.; Knoche, M.: Russeting of Fruits: Etiology and Management. In: Horticulturae : open access journal 8 (2022), Nr. 3, 231. DOI:
dc.description.abstract The skin of a fruit protects the vulnerable, nutrient-rich flesh and seed(s) within from the hostile environment. It is also responsible for the fruit’s appearance. In many fruitcrop species, russeting compromises fruit appearance and thus commercial value. Here, we review the literature on fruit russeting, focusing on the factors and mechanisms that induce it and on the management and breeding strategies that may reduce it. Compared with a primary fruit skin, which is usually distinctively colored and shiny, a secondary fruit skin is reddish-brown, dull and slightly rough to the touch (i.e., russeted). This secondary skin (periderm) comprises phellem cells with suberized cell walls, a phellogen and a phelloderm. Russeted (secondary) fruit skins have similar mechanical properties to non-russeted (primary) ones but are more plastic. However, russeted fruit skins are more permeable to water vapor, so russeted fruits suffer higher postharvest water loss, reduced shine, increased shrivel and reduced packed weight (most fruit is sold per kg). Orchard factors that induce russeting include expansion-growth-induced strain, surface wetness, mechanical damage, freezing temperatures, some pests and diseases and some agrochemicals. All these probably act via an increased incidence of cuticular microcracking as a result of local concentrations of mechanical stress. Microcracking impairs the cuticle’s barrier properties. Potential triggers of russeting (the development of a periderm), consequent on cuticular microcracking, include locally high concentrations of O2, lower concentrations of CO2 and more negative water potentials. Horticulturists sometimes spray gibberellins, cytokinins or boron to reduce russeting. Bagging fruit (to exclude surface moisture) is also reportedly effective. From a breeding perspective, genotypes having small and more uniform-sized epidermal cells are judged less likely to be susceptible to russeting. eng
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Basel : MDPI
dc.relation.ispartofseries Horticulturae : open access journal 8 (2022), Nr. 3
dc.rights CC BY 4.0 Unported
dc.subject disorder eng
dc.subject periderm eng
dc.subject repair mechanism eng
dc.subject.ddc 630 | Landwirtschaft, Veterinärmedizin ger
dc.subject.ddc 640 | Hauswirtschaft und Familienleben ger
dc.title Russeting of Fruits: Etiology and Management
dc.type Article
dc.type Text
dc.relation.essn 2311-7524
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 3
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 8
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage 231
dc.description.version publishedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich

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