Crack initiation and propagation in sweet cherry skin: A simple chain reaction causes the crack to ‘run’

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dc.identifier.uri Schumann, Christine Winkler, Andreas Brüggenwirth, Martin Köpcke, Kevin Knoche, Moritz 2021-02-24T10:00:39Z 2021-02-24T10:00:39Z 2019
dc.identifier.citation Schumann, Christine; Winkler, Andreas; Brüggenwirth, Martin et al.: Crack initiation and propagation in sweet cherry skin: A simple chain reaction causes the crack to ‘run’. In: PLoS ONE 14 (2019), Nr. 7, e0219794. DOI:
dc.description.abstract Rain cracking severely affects the commercial production of many fleshy-fruit species, including of sweet cherries. The objectives were to investigate how the gaping macroscopic cracks (macrocracks) of a rain-cracked fruit can develop from microscopic cracks in the cuticle (microcracks). Incubating fruit in deionized water is well known to cause significant macrocracking. We found that after a lag phase of 2 h, the numbers and lengths of macrocracks increased. Macrocrack number approached an asymptote at 12 h, whereas macrocrack length continued to increase. The rate of macrocrack propagation (extension at the crack tip) was initially 10.8 mm h-1 but then decreased to a near-constant 0.5 mm h-1. Light microscopy revealed three characteristic zones along a developing macrocrack. In zone I (ahead of the crack), the cuticle was intact, the epidermal cells were unbroken and their cell walls were thin. In zone II, the cuticle was fractured, the first epidermal cells died and their cell walls began to thicken (swell). In zone III, most epidermal cells had died, their cell walls were swollen and cell:cell separation began along the middle lamellae. The thickness of the anticlinal epidermal cell walls and the percentage of intact living cells along a crack were closely and negatively related. Cracks were stained by calcofluor white, but there was no binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for hemicelluloses (LM11, LM21, LM25). Strong binding was obtained with the anti-homogalacturonan mAb (LM19), indicating the presence of unesterified homogalacturonans on the crack surface. We conclude that macrocrack propagation is related to cell death and to cell wall swelling. Cell wall swelling weakens the cell:cell adhesion between neighbouring epidermal cells, which separate along their middle lamellae. The skin macrocrack propagates like a ‘run’ in a fine, knitted fabric. © 2019 Schumann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. eng
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.ispartofseries PLoS ONE 14 (2019), Nr. 7
dc.rights CC BY 4.0 Unported
dc.subject cherry eng
dc.subject macrocracks eng
dc.subject microcracks eng
dc.subject Light microscopy eng
dc.subject.ddc 500 | Naturwissenschaften ger
dc.subject.ddc 610 | Medizin, Gesundheit ger
dc.title Crack initiation and propagation in sweet cherry skin: A simple chain reaction causes the crack to ‘run’
dc.type article
dc.type Text
dc.relation.issn 1932-6203
dc.bibliographicCitation.issue 7
dc.bibliographicCitation.volume 14
dc.bibliographicCitation.firstPage e0219794
dc.description.version publishedVersion
tib.accessRights frei zug�nglich

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