The North American toxic fungal pathogen G3 Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne is established in the German Wadden Sea.

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Nehring, Stefan; Boestfleisch, Christian; Buhmann, Anne K.; Papenbrock,Jutta: The North American toxic fungal pathogen G3 Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne is established in the German Wadden Sea.. In: BioInvasions Records 1 (2012), Nr. 1, S. 5-10. DOI:

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Three lineages (G1, G2 and G3) within the toxic invasive ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne are known; these should be recognized as unique species, or at least as varieties. On 2 November 2011, a very dense, well established population of G3 C. purpurea was found on the common cord-grass Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard at two localities on the German North Sea coast in the Wadden Sea (Caciliengroden and Hooksiel). It is most likely that G3 C. purpurea has a North American origin and entered German coastal waters by floating sclerotia from Irish, British, or Benelux waters, where it was previously found. However, introduction via ships’ ballast water coming from their native or introduced ranges is also plausible. Furthermore imports of G3 sclerotia via seed mussels collected from wild subtidal banks in Irish, British and Dutch coastal waters and released into the German Wadden Sea can currently not be excluded. Risks from this highly toxic fungus for human, grazing animals and the marine environment have been identified but not yet quantified in terms of impact. A suitable monitoring programme should be implemented to detect any unwanted impacts caused by G3 C. purpurea in German salt marshes at an early phase.
License of this version: CC BY 4.0
Document Type: article
Publishing status: publishedVersion
Issue Date: 2012
Appears in Collections:Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät

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pos. country downloads
total perc.
1 image of flag of Germany Germany 5 62.50%
2 image of flag of United States United States 1 12.50%
3 image of flag of Netherlands Netherlands 1 12.50%
4 image of flag of China China 1 12.50%

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