Accumulation, Source Identification, and Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Different Jordanian Vegetables

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Al-Nasir, F.; Hijazin, T.J.; Al-Alawi, M.M.; Jiries, A.; Mayyas, A. et al.: Accumulation, Source Identification, and Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Different Jordanian Vegetables. In: Toxics : open access journal 10 (2022), Nr. 11, 643. DOI:

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The accumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in plants is considered one of the most serious threats faced by mankind because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and teratogenic effect on human health. The concentrations of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs) were determined in four types of edible vegetables (tomatoes, zucchini, eggplants, and cucumbers), irrigation water, and agriculture soil, where samples were collected from the Jordan Valley, Jordan. The mean total concentration of 16 PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 10.649 to 21.774 µg kg−1 in vegetables, 28.72 µg kg−1 in soil, and 0.218 µg L−1 in the water samples. The tomato samples posed the highest ∑16PAH concentration level in the vegetables, whereas the zucchini samples had the lowest. Generally, the PAHs with a high molecular weight and four or more benzene rings prevailed among the studied samples. The diagnostic ratios and the principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PAH contamination sources in soil and vegetables mainly originated from a pyrogenic origin, traffic emission sources, and biomass combustion. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) for ∑16PAHs have been observed in the order of tomatoes > cucumbers and eggplants > zucchini. A potential cancer risk related to lifetime consumption was revealed based on calculating the incremental lifetime cancer risk of PAHs (ILCR). Therefore, sustainable agricultural practices and avoiding biomass combusting would greatly help in minimizing the potential health risk from dietary exposure to PAHs.
License of this version: CC BY 4.0 Unported
Document Type: Article
Publishing status: publishedVersion
Issue Date: 2022
Appears in Collections:Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät

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1 image of flag of United States United States 13 39.39%
2 image of flag of Germany Germany 13 39.39%
3 image of flag of Nigeria Nigeria 1 3.03%
4 image of flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 1 3.03%
5 image of flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia 1 3.03%
6 image of flag of Egypt Egypt 1 3.03%
7 image of flag of Denmark Denmark 1 3.03%
8 image of flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic 1 3.03%
9 image of flag of Brazil Brazil 1 3.03%

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