Influence of solder pads to PERC solar cells for module integration

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Kiefer, F.; Brendemühl, T.; Berger, M.; Lohse, A.; Kirstein, S.; et al.: Influence of solder pads to PERC solar cells for module integration. In: Energy Procedia 38 (2013), S. 368-374. DOI:

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Sum total of downloads: 361

The majority of screen printed solar cells has silver pads at the rear side to enable soldering for the module manufacturing. The pads increase the recombination at the silicon/metal interface due to the absence of a back surface field (BSF) at the solder pads. This reduces the efficiency of full-area Al-BSF solar cells. For passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC), a large area fraction of the rear side is covered with the passivation layer. When using specially designed Ag pastes for the rear side of PERC cells, the passivation of this layer is maintained, and the rear recombination is reduced. A comparison of solar cells with and without solder pads confirms that there is no loss in solar cell performance, both cell types achieve an efficiency of 19.6%. We investigate the influence of solder pads to PERC solar cells by calculating the effective rear surface recombination. The calculations confirm that there is a loss in open circuit voltage of less than 2 mV due to the solder pads. A 54-cell PERC PV module is manufactured. The cell-to-module loss reveals that the module process is still to be optimized. Comparable modules made from 9 solar cells lost less than 1% relative in all J-V parameters after a 1000h damp-heat test.
License of this version: CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 Unported
Document Type: article
Publishing status: publishedVersion
Issue Date: 2013
Appears in Collections:Fakultät für Mathematik und Physik

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pos. country downloads
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1 image of flag of Germany Germany 216 59.83%
2 image of flag of Netherlands Netherlands 61 16.90%
3 image of flag of United States United States 34 9.42%
4 image of flag of China China 9 2.49%
5 image of flag of India India 7 1.94%
6 image of flag of Vietnam Vietnam 4 1.11%
7 image of flag of Korea, Republic of Korea, Republic of 3 0.83%
8 image of flag of Japan Japan 3 0.83%
9 image of flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 3 0.83%
10 image of flag of France France 2 0.55%
    other countries 19 5.26%

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